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Archive for March, 2009

Just a quick thought.  Maybe others have already made the connection between mentoring & coaching and discipleship.  I think I have thought about it before, but it really became concrete this evening.  I need to look into discipleship a bit more, but it would seem to be the same essence.

The other thought is how mentoring and coaching works with my other ideas of leadership: serving life; leadership is for everyone, everywhere, all the time – for better or worse.

As I read the articles I have selected I get side tracked – as it were – into seeing mentoring and coaching as a tool to “get ahead” individually or as a company.  But what about coaching and mentoring as simply the right thing to do?

Learning is a function of Senge’s “Personal Mastery”.  What we believe the purpose of mentoring and coaching to be is a function of “mental models”.   I have been reading articles and I definitely need to surface them here.  But tonight, I needed to jot these thoughts down while I had them.

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My quick take on this article: Mentor matching: A “Goodness of Fit” Model is a creation of the authors based on social exchange theory. The authors are exploring the organic nature of informal mentoring relationships. They are careful to limit their model and not exclude or “diss” other forms of mentoring (e.g. formal mentoring programs). Rather they seek to explain why, in formal mentoring programs, some relationship “take off”, while others don’t; and in the absence of formal program why two people enter into a mentoring relationship at all.

They explore the process and problem of defining “Mentoring”.  They take Kathy Kram’s work and refine it to this:

Mentoring:A process for the reciprocal,informal transmission of knowledge,social capital,and psycho-social support perceived by the recipient as relevant to work, career, or professional development; mentoring entails informal communication, usually face to face and over a sustained period of time, between a person who is perceived to have greater relevant knowledge, wisdom, or experience (the mentor), to a person who is perceived to have less (the protégé).

Additionally, the authors include that my necessity, mentoring relationships are dyad based. While any mentor or protege may enter into more than one mentoring relationship (as mentor or protege), each relationship is limited to two members.

In using social exchange as a foundation, the authors point out that informal/organic mentoring relationships have minimal conditions which must be met to even form, and optimal conditions under which the members of the relationship are completely satisfied. “Goodness of fit” then happens somewhere in between.

The authors put forward that the “goodness of fit” rests in three general areas: endowments (the “fund” each possesses and brings to the relationship; preferences (for the mentor – the value of transmitting their endowments and for the protege – the value for receiving and learning); and content (specific to the purpose of the mentoring relationship).

As this is an – as yet – untested model, the authors provide research questions as suggestions for further study. To me the basis and logic of their model makes sense. Currently my “issue” with the entire model is that “reciprocity” is required. While I willing acknowledge that our world tends to operate on a basis of reciprocity, I am not convinced that it is required in general, and believe that a goodness of fit can be achieved without the necessity for reciprocity.

Mentor Matching: A “Goodness of Fit” Model
Barry Bozeman and Mary K. Feeney
The online version of this article can be found at: http://aas.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/40/5/465

DOI: 10.1177/0095399708320184 2008; 2008; 40; 465 originally published online Jun 9, Administration & Society

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The following definition comes largely based on Kathy Kram and the interpretations of others who followed after her.

An intense/deep/meaningful relationship between two people, one of whom is more experienced/influencial/higher ranking than the other in one or more areas/domains of life.  The more experienced/etc individual guides/protects/councils/teaches/supports/etc the other.

**

Eby, L. T., & Allen, T. D. (2002). Further investigation of protégés’negative mentoring expe-
riences patterns and outcomes. Group & Organization Management, 27(4), 456-479.

Kram, K. E. (1980). Mentoring processes at work:Developmental relationships in manager-
ial careers. Unpublished doctoral dissertation,Yale University, New Haven, CT.

Kram, K. E. (1983). Phases of the mentor relationship. Academy of Management Journal,
26(4), 608-625.

Ragins, B. R. (1997b). Diversified mentoring relationships in organizations: A power per-
spective. Academy of Management Review, 22(2), 482-521.

Zey, M. G. (1984). The mentor connection. Homewood, IL:Dow Jones-Irwin.

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I have spent the past day thinking about those who have been my mentors and coaches.  One thing strikes me:  not all these relationships were declared or might even be recognized by the other party.  My list reads as a “who’s who” of positive influence in my life.

My mentors range from the personal, professional, spiritual, and educational.

One of my early mentors was Zach Staenberg.  In college I hated editing.  But Zach’s passion and insights challenged me and helped to shift my thinking.  He was not my coach.  In that situation my coach would have been the first or second assistant editor (I was the apprentice).

Another early professional mentor was David Frankel.  Over the three months I worked with him I remember discussing his insights and philosophies on the process of film/TV production – again, shaping my perspectives and future practices.

To a lesser extent, yet still true, Michael Rachmil, Norman Steinberg, Matthew Ody and Stan Golden also acted as mentors and the latter two, as coaches.   During my initial work for Roger Corman, the first projectionist I met (sorry, I don’t have a name) was a coach – seriously.  Having told Roger Corman I knew how to run a 35mm double system projector (I didn’t), the projectionist on another one of Corman’s films coached me through the process and I was able to run the dailies for him for a few weeks.

Mentors were far and few between my exit from Hollywood and my entrance to education.  Mailen Kootsey whose passion for technology and education challenged my thinking and perspectives, energizing me into educational technology and a Masters in Education.

Personal Mentors:
My father

Spiritual Mentors:
A Graham Maxwell
Robert Wieland
Jonathan Gallagher

Educational Mentors:
Mailen Kootsey
Dave Gilsdorf
My 5th and 6th grade teachers were great coaches, as was my 9th and 10th grade English teacher.  Certainly other teachers have played a positive coaching role.

Can people you have never met mentor or coach you?  At first I admit that I hesitate to say “yes”.  However, I can’t shake the influence of authors, and artists of all sorts whose handiwork has either mentored me or coached me in one or more of my life’s domains.  Clearly as I engage with their works I engage in a relationship with them.

Among these who I consider mentors:  David Dunn (“Try Giving Yourself Away”); John Eldredge (“Wild at Heart”); Ellen White (“Desire of Ages” and “God Made Manifest in Christ” among others);  Ensemble for “Babette’s Feast” and “My Life as a Dog”.

And for coaching, pretty much anything by Henry Cloud and John Townsend.

I too am the work of my mentors and coaches.  This brings me to consider that as people engage with me or my works, you have also in some way engaged with my mentors and coaches.  Naturally the reverse is true too.

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Definitions:
A quick perusal of Google’s “define” function brings up the following sampling:

Mentorship refers to a developmental relationship between a more experienced mentor and a less experienced partner referred to as a protégé …
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mentoring

• mentor – serve as a teacher or trusted counselor; “The famous professor mentored him during his years in graduate school”; “She is a fine lecturer but she doesn’t like mentoring”
• mentor – a wise and trusted guide and advisor
wordnet.princeton.edu/perl/webwn

There are categories of mentoring:  peer; youth; professional; clinical; technical; and so forth.

The term “coaching” returns the following from Google:

Coaching is a method of directing, instructing and training a person or group of people, with the aim to achieve some goal or develop specific …
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coaching

coach – a person who gives private instruction (as in singing, acting, etc.)
wordnet.princeton.edu/perl/webwn

Here, again, a variety of categories:  life; executive; personal; conflict; business; career online; performance; and so on.

By these definitions then, coaching is specific and mentoring is broad.  Coaching would be based on some form of reciprocity, mentoring need not be.  Perhaps, there is much overlap of practice between the two as well.

In a conversation today with a faculty, he described my work clearly as a mentor, in that I have more experience, and enter easily into mentoring type relationships with less experienced proteges.  At the same time, I clearly see myself as a coach, training, directing, and instructing for very specific objectives.  In thinking about my job: I am a coach by these definitions.  The mentoring part comes to play with those who wish to move beyond “mere” coaching.

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For the next three weeks I am focusing on “Coaching and Mentoring”.  What are they?  How are they practiced?  What do they look like in practice?

To start off with, what does each word mean to me now?

Coaching and mentoring to me, are separate and distinct from each other.  To my way of thinking mentoring suggests a specific relationship between a mentor and protege.  While Mentoring can include coaching, coaching does not include mentoring.

Both coaching and mentoring can be formal or informal.  Formal aspects would include practices entered into specifically and purposefully for a specified duration or outcome.  Informal would be much more casual and fluid, perhaps with less defined duration and less specific outcomes.

Examples:
Formal:
An organization has a formal program of mentoring between senior management and middle/lower management for specific duration/outcomes in the development and cultivation of skills and development.

Informal
An organization hires an executive coaching consultant company to work with senior management on certain issues/goals.  They are also retained to work on specific development goals with junior managers.  Optionally, to work through a very specific set of problems in which major “egos” are involved.

What are you insights and opinions?

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